West, Claudia A. Sacramento, in Handbook of Organizational Creativity, 2012. An example would be a creative solution to a difficult problem. The variety of current creativity theories has plusses and minuses. Much of the research devoted to creativity during the 1950s and 1960s was focused on variables which had ominous implications for dominant attitudes in psychology and the society. Climate refers to the perceptions of the work environment and the term can designate descriptions and perceptions at the individual, group, or organizational level of analysis. The first criterion is originality. Our vision was for a dialog between those who study creativity in animals and those who study the same topic in humans. People often have difficulty describing where their creative ideas came from. Two of the primary components of creativity include:1 1. Baer has proposed a divergent thinking metatheory of creativity that, although encompassing all domains of creativity in a single conceptual scheme, nonetheless takes into account the domain specificity of creativity. Mednick believed that the creative process requires the ability to associate ideas that are considered very far apart conceptually. Guilford (1950), for instance, defined divergent thinking as the generation of many alternatives and ideationally branching out from a single starting point, and convergent thinking as homing in on a singular solution and evaluation of fit. However, much of human creativity theory can be applied to animal behavior. West, Claudia A. Sacramento, in, Climate is a contextual feature and therefore an understanding of the role of climate in, Amabile, 1988; George & Zhou, 2002; Pamela Tierney & Farmer, 2002, Barron & Harrington, 1981; James & Asmus, 2000; MacKinnon, 1962, Baer & Frese, 2003; Schneider & Reichers, 1983; Schneider, Wheeler, & Cox, 1992, Anderson & West, 1998; West, 1990; West & Anderson, 1996, Ekvall, 1996; Ekvall & Ryhammar, 1999; Ekvall & Tangebergandersson, 1986; Isaksen, Lauer, Ekvall, & Britz, 2000, Abbey & Dickson, 1983; Tesluk, Farr, &. The RAT consists of items that require the respondent to identify a word that can be associated to three rather distinct stimulus words. Specifically, we really have to speak of degree to which an idea satisfies each of the three criteria. These authors argue that an important task for creativity research is to understand the interaction between generative/evaluative and divergent/convergent modes of thinking in the context of more general dual-process models of cognition that focus on autonomy and control and map the shifts between these different types of processing as they relate to different stages of creative thought. Functionality:The idea needs to actually work or possess some degree of usefulness. Although several definitions of creativity can be found in the recent organizational creativity literature, they are consensual in stressing that creativity implies novelty and usefulness (Amabile, 1988; George & Zhou, 2002; Pamela Tierney & Farmer, 2002). Not one of them existed until somebody came up with the idea. Next, we briefly describe two models central to this approach, with reference to the role they attribute to the context. In his turn, Ross Mooney (1962) in his “Conceptual Model for Integrating Four Approaches to the Identification of Creative Talent,”also proposed to consider creativity through the prism of model 4 Ps (process, product, person, and environ… Although these efforts had already been initiated (e.g., Baldridge & Burnham, 1975), the social–psychological approach brought a new impetus to this research agenda. The idea must have a low probability. Wertheimer, 1958). Although creativity is often associated with the arts, it is actually a vital form of intelligence that drives people in many disciplines to discover something new. The goal of the Handbook of Creativity is to provide the most comprehensive, definitive, and authoritative single-volume review available in the field of creativity. It is interesting to note that the task where positive mood was found to be detrimental is a typical insight problem (the Radiation Problem; Duncker, 1945), held in the classical literature to be a representative indicator of core creative processes in creative problem-solving (e.g. Introduction. Organizational creativity research has its intellectual roots both in creativity research in general, which has been conducted primarily within psychology, and on macro-level approaches to the study of organizational innovation. (It might also make creativity less interesting, but because such a theory is impossible, we will never know. Atchley, Strayer, & Atchley, 2012; Ball & Stevens, 2009; Beaty & Silvia, 2012, 2013; Benedek, Franz, Heene, & Neubauer, 2012; Chein & Weisberg, 2014; Gilhooly, Fioratou, Anthony, & Wynn, 2007; Gupta, Jang, Mednick, & Huber, 2012; Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011; Silvia, 2008; Silvia & Beaty, 2012, Beaty, Silvia, Nusbaum, Jauk, & Benedek (2014), Beaty, Benedek, Kaufman, and Silvia (2015), Abraham, Rutter, Bantin, & Hermann, 2018; Beaty et al., 2015; Heinonen et al., 2016, The Effect of Mood On Creativity in the Innovative Process, Even if we keep strictly within the specific task domain of creative problem-solving, however, several findings anomalous to the positive mood-enhance-, Domain Specificity: Introduction and Overview, Within the field of creativity research, psychologists tend to stick to the study of humans. Creative arts therapies or expressive arts therapy are dynamic, participatory approaches that capitalize on nonverbal expression of thoughts and feelings. The importance of context was further stressed by Woodman, Sawyer and Griffin (1993). To this end, the book contains 22 chapters covering a wide range of issues and topics in this field, all written by distinguished leaders. Personal mechanisms of sense creation. Indeed, it often should be unique. Given the emphasis on understanding the shifting of processing types in time, they identify chronometric approaches as having particular promise both in unraveling the way creative thinking unfolds at the cognitive and neural levels and in developing effective interventions to enhance creative thinking. Some studies have found that people who tended to produce more original responses also were better at rating their most original responses to a divergent-thinking task. Here are the four main approaches to this area of psychology. There has been one outstanding edited book on the topic—Animal Innovation by Simon Reader and Kevin Laland (Oxford University Press, 2003)—but it was, with some exceptions, focused on work by animal researchers. Note that this emphasis on the role of context in the creativity literature runs in parallel with the trend observed in the general organizational behavior literature (Johns, 2006). As a result of his lifetime of work, he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2009. Creativity, a key engineer for facilitating social harmony, sustainable human development, technological invention and scientific revolution, is manifested in human activities at different levels, from everyday life to advanced technological industries. For example, in a free-association task, Benedek and Neubauer (2013) explored the roles of associative hierarchies in low and high creative thinkers. The first, selective encoding, involves distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information. Creativity theories must either become domain specific themselves or find some general approach to dealing with these domain-based differences. What do the following have in common: the drug penicillin, the Eiffel Tower, the film Lord of the Rings, the General Theory of Relativity, the hymn Amazing Grace, the iPhone, the novel Don Quixote, the painting The Mona Lisa, a recipe for chocolate fudge, the soft drink Coca-Cola, the video game Wii Sports, the West Coast offense in football, and the zipper? In another task, positive mood was detrimental to performance, whereas in a third task, no significant differences between the different moods appeared. In the meantime, both views will continue to claim adherents among researchers and theorists. Innovation can be described as: “the intentional introduction and application within a job, work team or organization of ideas, processes, products or procedures which are new to that job, work team or organization” (West & Farr, 1990, p. 9). Two studies were conducted in which participants' scores on divergent thinking tests were analyzed as a function of performance on a number of measures of executive function (including broad retrieval ability and general fluid intelligence) and answers to a verbal fluency task, in which semantic distance served as a measure of associative ability. Creativity is not something that you just pick like apples from a tree. MA Critical research paper (submitted 2009) A necessary process: The psychology of creativity As an illustrator I have always channeled my efforts into creating highly polished, technique-driven… Based on qualitative and quantitative work, the authors identified the following eight dimensions: Focusing on a theory of psychological processes, Ekval and colleagues (Ekvall, 1996; Ekvall & Ryhammar, 1999; Ekvall & Tangebergandersson, 1986; Isaksen, Lauer, Ekvall, & Britz, 2000) proposed a 9 dimensional model integrating: We note that other models more strongly embedded in organizational management theory have also been developed (e.g., Abbey & Dickson, 1983; Tesluk, Farr, &. They found no support for the notion that the high creatives were accessing more remote associates earlier on and argued that “creativity … may not necessarily imply a special organization of associative memory, but it may rather rely on advanced executive abilities allowing for a highly effective access [to] and processing of memory content” (p. 287). And finally, creativity training programs cannot be assumed to increase creativity across all domains simply because they successfully promote creativity in one domain. For example, using a brick as a paperweight represents a different conceptual category that using its volume to conserve water in a toilet tank. Most common are divergent thinking tests, including the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, although they are not without controversy. People who are high in synthetic ability but low in analytical ability may need someone else to evaluate and judge their work for them. Disciplinary perspectives often emerge in opposition to each other, and this can be seen in the individualist and holist approaches to creativity. The everyday expression of creativity often takes the form of trying out a new approach to a familiar dilemma. In order to contextualize the importance of climate on organizational creativity and innovation it is useful to look at how this literature evolved. Much of the core creativity research and theory is rooted in the arts, but writing and visual art have been more traditional subjects. The first is the Remote Associates Test, or RAT, that was introduced by Mednick (1962). Biologists or ethologists usually either focus on animal problem solving or else consider creativity to be an evolutionary adaptation. What about using it as sidewalk chalk? In fact, Baer (1994a, 1994b, 1994c)1994a1994b1994c provided convincing evidence that creativity is not only content specific but is also task specific within content areas. With reference to the evidence indicating a significant relationship between hypomania and creativity cited above, Weisberg conducted an interesting case study of Schumann's mood bipolarity. West’s team climate model (1990) and Amabile and colleagues’ work environment model (1996) are arguably the most widely validated models of climate for creativity and innovation. Over the past 35 years, examination of social and environmental influences on creativity has become increasingly vigorous, with broad implications for the psychology of human performance, and with applications to education, business, and beyond. For instance, the “person approach”, which represented one of the dominant schools of thought in the psychological study of creativity, conceptualized creativity as the constellation of personality and intellectual traits shown by individuals who, when given sufficient autonomy, spent significant amounts of time engaged in the creative process (Findlay & Lumsden, 1988). Rex E. Jung, PhD, is an assistant professor of neurosurgery at the University of New Mexico, a research scientist at the Mind Research Network and a practicing clinical neuropsychologist in Albuquerque. Since this time, things have not slowed down, and the sheer volume of research on creativity continues to increase. Major test developers may not be willing to support extensive test development efforts for tests of such limited potential use. Thus, our following discussions on team and organizational climates will be grounded on these two frameworks. Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. At present, unprecedented significance is being attribute… Promising areas for further psychological study of creativity include computational modeling, and work on the neurobiological basis of creativity, as … Yet studies of acting, dancing, and other performance-based arts have continued to grow, and it is my delight to introduce Creativity and the Performing Artist: Behind the Mask as the latest volume to the Explorations in Creativity Research series from Academic Press. Based on Steitz’s comment, it becomes clear that someone’s creativity, although an individual strength, benefits from interactions with others. Jausovec (1989), comparing the effects of positive, negative and neutral mood on analogical transfer in insight problems, reported a complex set of findings. 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